Referencing, aka citation, is a method to credit the original author, whose idea or innovative work you’re using to support your idea. In academic fields, reference citation is done at two levels. First, you have to give “in-text-citation” in the body in a concise manner, and next, you have to present the reference in detail at the end of the document. Usually, the reference or citation includes the author’s name, year of publication, name of publication, the title of the journal or book. In some references, DoI (Digital Object Identifier) is also there. 

Best Examples of Referencing Styles in Writing

Purpose of Referencing

Referencing is perceived as an inseparable part of academic writing. It recognizes the original author of the idea and helps everyone access the original work and comprehend it in their own way. The best assignment writing company says that referencing basically helps to fight plagiarism.

How to make Reference list

All the in-text references used in your research work, their detailed references should be listed at the end page of your document. The title ‘reference list’ should be in bold and placed in center-aligned. Each reference should have double space entered in-between them. Each element of the reference should be separated by a comma. Each reference list should be in alphabetical order.

How bibliography is different from a reference list

The bibliography consists of source material that you have used for background reading. The bibliography is not necessary to be cited in the main content. While the reference list contains all the sources that have been used in the in-text citation. Otherwise, the bibliography list should be presented similar to the reference list.

Referencing Styles

There are various styles of referencing, which is classified as per the standard method of citing the source of work. The main difference in various reference styles lies in the in-text styles and use of punctuation.

There are some common and widely used referencing styles, such as:

●  Harvard

●  Vancouver

●  APA (American Psychological Association)

●  MLA (modern language association)

●  Chicago

Some non-common reference styles are also there, which uses on some rare occasions:

●      ACS (American Chemical Society)

●      AMA (American Medical Association)

●      IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Different citation styles:

There are different styles of in-text situations in different reference styles. Often the difference is very subtle and can’t be distinguished in a cursory reading. Therefore, you must be careful while using different citation styles.


This citation style includes the author’s last name and publication date, along with page number.

Note Citation:

In this citation, you have to put the reference in the footnote or endnote.

Numeric citation:

You have to number each source reference and use that number where you want to put in-text.

Harvard Reference style:

Harvard reference style is a generic reference style that refers to all reference styles. Therefore, it doesn’t have any official manual. This “author-date” based referencing style is mainly used in the UK and Australian academic sphere.

Generally, the in-text in Harvard referencing style the author’s last name is used alongside the publication year. In some cases, it also demands the page number. The reference system appears like this: (<author>, <year>, <page no.>). If more than one author is presented, then the in-text would be in the following way: (<author #1>, <author #2>. <year of publication>). If more than three authors are mentioned, you should write the first author’s last name and then follow it by ‘et al.,’ in italics. If the year of publication is not visible, you either have to estimate the year or write ‘n.d.’ in the place of the date.

APA referencing style:

American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style is similar to Harvard referencing style and widely used in the USA. Overall, the reference is the same, but you should use ‘&’ rather than ‘and’ in APA referencing. There are two kinds of API reference styles: APA 6th and APA 7th.

Chicago reference style:

This reference style originated at the University of Chicago 100 years ago. This reference style has two types: Chicago A and another is Chicago B. The Chicago A reference system mainly used in humanities and history has note citations style. While Chicago b is a parenthesis or author-date reference style which is used in Science and Social Science.

Vancouver referencing style:

This style has been developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). This reference style is widely used as one of the golden rules of assignment writing. It has been widely used in medical journals. This style also deals with numeric reference style, and the detailed source reference disappeared at the end of the document.

AMA reference style:

AMA reference style is also used in medical sciences and has a numeric system. The in-text style in this reference system is set in super-script, including the page number.